Two types of archaeological dating

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This also works with stone tools which are found abundantly at different sites and across long periods of time.Stratigraphic dating is based on the principle of depositional superposition of layers of sediments called strata.What about abandoned settlements in less well populated regions, particularly those inhabited by past elements of rural or pastoral populations?Archaeological investigation of famous ancient cities such as inevitably reveals examples of exquisite art and ornate monuments that adorn modern museums and attract millions of tourists.

Ruins of ancient cities in currently populated areas may seem relatively obvious places to start, not to mention cities such as Athens, Rome or Istanbul (Constantinople) that remain inhabited continuously since antiquity (and hence reveal ancient remains whenever one excavates a foundation, a pipeline or a subway).

Archaeological investigation relies on the survival of material remains to date phases of past human existence and to identify the attributes of ancient cultures.

Since the last mentioned form the building blocks to civilization, and in particular to the chronologies of the materials to be presented in these pages, it is best to achieve some basic understanding of archaeological strategies and vocabulary.

The entire process of determining the cultural attributes of past civilizations requires the use of a complex array of tools combining archaeological with historical and literary means of investigation.

Three things need to be discussed in this chapter, each related to determining historical chronology -- archaeology, forms of writing, and the value of each to historical analysis.

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